Mark 4:10 And when he was alone, they that were about him with the twelve asked of him the parable.
The disciples, including the twelve asked him for understanding of the parable.
Mark 4:11 And he said unto them, Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God: but unto them that are without, all these things are done in parables:
Mark 4:12 That seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest at any time they should be converted, and their sins should be forgiven them.
Isa 6:9 And he said, Go, and tell this people, Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not.
The elect want to know more of God's truth. Those who are without, the mockers and enemies of Christ, do not want to hear. Often they ask questions only to sow doubt in the hearer, attempting to lead others away from God's truth in Jesus. They do not want answers, they ask questions in order to bring confusion and strife to the hearer. Those who are seeking more understanding from God listen, they ask questions for understanding.
Mark 4:13 And he said unto them, Know ye not this parable? and how then will ye know all parables?
The disciples did not understand, but they wanted to understand. Jesus shows them how. We look for the spiritual meaning behind key words.
Mark 4:14 The sower soweth the word.
Here is the key word: the seed is the word of God.
Mark 4:15 And these are they by the way side, where the word is sown; but when they have heard, Satan cometh immediately, and taketh away the word that was sown in their hearts.
The wayside was hard soil, another key word, the ground the seed falls on are the hearts of people. Satan, the enemy of God comes to remove the word. How does he? First the person does not allow God's word in their heart, they reject it, Satan comes to speak words of doubt and words to condemn. They believe the liar and thief, instead of God's truth.
Mark 4:16 And these are they likewise which are sown on stony ground; who, when they have heard the word, immediately receive it with gladness;
Mark 4:17 And have no root in themselves, and so endure but for a time: afterward, when affliction or persecution ariseth for the word's sake, immediately they are offended.
Stony ground, not entirely hard, they are happy to receive the word, but they have no depth of soil. They do not wish to receive more word, so what they did receive withers and dies. The word is alive, but the stony heart did not make room for it. When trouble comes, the flesh reacts apart from God's spiritual word and they are upset, falling back to where they were before receiving the word.
Mark 4:18 And these are they which are sown among thorns; such as hear the word,
Mark 4:19 And the cares of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts of other things entering in, choke the word, and it becometh unfruitful.
Those who hear the word, but allow the thorns to choke the word out. Thorns are the other things of this world who take over the attention and heart of the person. They are more concerned with the cares and things of the world. It may be troubles or the riches, power and pride of the world. They leave God's word to live as those of the world. These first three examples are not disciples of Jesus Christ. They may use his name, but they deny the power of the word and God's Spirit.
Mark 4:20 And these are they which are sown on good ground; such as hear the word, and receive it, and bring forth fruit, some thirtyfold, some sixty, and some an hundred.
Good ground, good hearts that eagerly receive God's word and grow bringing forth much fruit. Fruit is the character of God in a life, the exercising of their Spiritual gifts and the results, in bringing others to Jesus or the building up of God's people.
Dan 12:3 And they that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever.